In this challenge, you will implement a function to calculate the factorial of a given non-negative integer. The factorial of a number n (denoted as n!) is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. For example, the factorial of 5 is 5! = 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 = 120.

Factorials grow very quickly, so it is important to handle large numbers appropriately. Rust's standard library provides the u128 type, which can handle very large integers. Your task is to implement a function that calculates the factorial of a given u32 number and returns the result as a u128.

Implement a function factorial(n: u32) -> u128 that calculates the factorial of the given non-negative integer n. Use early returns to handle the base case when n is 0, since 0! is defined as 1. For other values of n, use a loop to calculate the factorial.